What are Terpenoids / Terpeness
Terpenoids (terpenes) are the compounds in cannabis that give the plant its unique smell and flavor. Basically terpenes are the essential oils of cannabis. THC and all other cannabinoids are odorless so the fragrance depend on which terpenes predominate. The combination of terpenoids and THC in each strain create a unique psychoactive flavor and enhance the potency.
Most Common Terpenoids
Alpha-Pinene is the familiar odor associated with pine trees and turpentine. It is present in many plants such as rosemary and sage. Alpha-Pinene is the most common naturally occurring terpenoid in nature and is used in medicine as an expectorant, anti-inflammatory, a bronchodilator and an antiseptic.
Linalool has a floral scent reminiscent of spring flowers but with spicy overtones. It is an effective in relieving anxiety, anti-stress and has sedating properties. It has also been used as both an analgesic and anti-epileptic.
Myrcene is the most common terpene found in most varieties of cannabis. This terpene dictates whether a strain will have an indica or sativa effect. Strains containing over 0.5% of myrcene will result in a "couch lock" effect while strains under 0.5% will produce a more energetic high. Its smell is very similar to cloves. Myrcene is also present in thyme, hops, lemon grass, and citrus and is used in aromatherapy. It is a potent analgesic, anti-inflamitory and antibiotic. It also has a relaxing, anti-spasmodic and sedative effect. Acting in synergy with THC, myrcene increases increases its psychoactive potential.
Limonene is a dominant terpene in strains that have a pronounced sativa effect. Limonene is found in the skin of citrus fruits and gives aid in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and mucous membranes. It has also been used to treat both anxiety and depression. During testing on the effects of limonene, participants experienced an increase in attention, mental focus, well-being and even sex drive. It also has the effect of reducing the unpleasantness of gastric acid and stimulates the immune system.
Ocimene is used in perfumes for its pleasant floral odor. In nature this terpene is part of the plants defenses and possesses antifungal properties.
Terpinolene has been shown to exhibit both antioxidant and anticancer effects in rat brain cells. Studies with mice have shown inhaled terpinolene has a sedating effect. This terpene smells like a bouquet of flowers and is found in Jack Herer varieties.
Terpineol is known for its pleasant smell and is often used in soaps and perfumes. It is known for having relaxing effects.
The Valencene terpenoid is found in valencia oranges and is also found in cannabis which contributes to the citrus smell.
Beta-Caryophyllene is the only terpene known to interact with the body's endocannabinoid system (CB2) and it produces anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
Geraniol is derived from the geranium plant. Geraniol produces a rosey scent and is often used as a perfume additive. It also shows a potential protective effect against neuropathy.
Alpha-Humulene contributes to the "hoppy" scent of cannabis. This terpene exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity and acts as an appetite suppressant.
Phellandrene is commonly found in the essential oil of plants in the eucalyptus genus. It smells similar to peppermint with a slight citrus tone. Current research has shown this terpene to have anti-depressive effects.
Carene has a sweet pungent odor of both pine and cedar resin. It is used to dry out excess body fluids like mucous, tears and sweat.
Terpinene is often used as a fragrant additive in the cosmetic and food industries and also as an additive in the pharmaceutical industry. It is known for having very strong anti-oxidant properties.
Fenchol is a compound found in basil and is used often in perfume. It is known to exhibit antibacterial properties.
Borneol has a menthol aroma and is used as a calming sedative. It is also good for fatigue and recovery from stress and illness and exhibits both anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects.
Bisabolol is the primary constituent of German Chamomile essential oil and has recently been shown to induce apoptosis in models of leukemia.
Phytol is a diterpene found in green tea that results from the degradation of chlorophyll. It inhibits the enzyme that degrades the neurotransmitter GABA which partially contributes to its relaxing effect.
Camphene is found in essential oils extracted from certain trees. It has recently shown results for pain relief and anti-oxidant effects.
Sabinene has a spicy, oak, and black pepper scents and it has been shown to benefit liver function, digestion, arthritis, and can sooth skin conditions.
Camphor is derived from the camphor tree. Camphor is easily absorbed through the skin and produces a feeling of cooling similar to that of menthol. It also acts as slight local anesthetic and antimicrobial substance.
Isoborneol is found in mugwort that exhibits antiviral properties. It also is a potent inhibitor of herpes simplex virus type 1.
Menthol has analgesic properties and is used topically to treat inflammatory pain.
Cedrene exhibits smells of cedar and is found in the essential oil of cedar wood.
Nerolidol is found in oranges. It acts as a sedative and produces potent anti-fungal and anti-malarial activity.
Guaiol is an alcohol found in the oil of guaiacum and cypress pine that posses antimicrobial properties.
Isopulegol is a chemical precursor to menthol that has a variety of promising routes for therapeutic research. Studies have shown Isopulegol has gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as reducing severity of seizures in animal models.
Geranyl Acetate is found in a variety of natural oils from plants such as citronella, citrus, lemon grass, sassafras, roses, and many others. It has a very floral aroma with a fruity note and produces strong antimicrobial effects.
Cymene is commonly found in the essential oils of cumin and thyme. It has documented anti-inflammatory effects, and shows potential protective effects against acute lung injury.
Eucalyptol is derived from eucalyptus oil which exhibits a minty, earthy aroma and has been proven to exhibit potent anti-fungal effects.
Pulegone exhibits a soothing peppermint aroma and is used as a strong insecticide.
* These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any disease. Always check with your physician before starting a new dietary supplement program.